good morning, ladies and gentlemen, welcome to china! welcome to hubei province!
today i am very pleased to show you three gorges of yangtze river.
At first i’ll have a brief introduction of yangtze river, the yangtzeriver, the biggest river in china, the third longest in the world,starts with the tuotuo river at the roof of the world -qinghai-tibetplateau, takes in countless rivers, and flows eastward across theinterior of china. with an overall length of more than 6,300kilometers, the yangtze river, next only to the amazon and the nile, isthe third biggest river in the world and is a cradle that breeds theancient civilization of the chinese nation.
when theyangtze river reaches the eastern sichuan basin in southwest china, itcuts through the wushan mountain. here the river course suddenlynarrows and the waters become turbulent. sheer cliffs and steepmountains rise on either side, creating one of nature#39;s most fantasticsights. the three gorges---qutang, wuxia and xiling----start just afterfengjie and end near yichang, stretch about 200 kilometers. the gorgesvary from 300metres at their widest to less than 100 meters at theirnarrowest.
qutang gorge is the smallest and shortestgorge, but grandest of the three. the yangtze river, mighty and rapidhere is suddenly contained like "a thousand seas poured into one cup",as the song dynasty poet su tungpo described the spectacle. high on theboth bank, at a place called bellows gorge, are a series of crevices.this area is said to have been the home of an ancient tribe whosecustom was to place the coffins of their crevices, some containingbronze swords, armour and other artifacts, but the coffins are believedto date back as far as the warring states period.
wugorge extends 40 kilometers along which the river snakes between basedstrange-shaped mountain peaks, each of which has a reputation based ona beautiful legend. the story of the "12 peaks of wushan goes likethis: 12 nymphs once descended to enjoy themselves in the secularworld. finding how perilous wushan gorge was, they decided to staythere to protect ships. as time went by, they transformed themselvesinto 12 peaks. the goddess peak, the most graceful of the 12, is saidto have been yaoji, the youngest daughter of the queen mother of thewestern heaven .goddess peak stands out from the other peaks on thenorthern bank to be the first to greet the morning sun and the last tobid it farewell, hence its another name, viewing the glow peak. seen ata distance, it resembles the silhouette of a beautiful young lady.
downstream from the zigzagging wuxia gorge is xiling gorge which stretches78 kilometers eastward and the cliffs on either side rise to just over900 meters. xiling gorge is awesome with its dangerous rapids, shoals,reefs, sharp turns, billowy whirlpools. the water at one point is soturbulent that it seems to be boiling during the flood season. xilinggorge in the east consists of several small gorges. on the top ofanother is a rock that looks like a sword. on the crag of the northbank are two pieces of brown rock, which are named bull#39;s liver andhorse#39; lung, whose shape they take. next does the lantern shadow gorge,which has four rocks, resemble monk xuan zang and his threedisciples---monkey, piggy and sandy in the classic chinese adventuresof the four on their way to india to obtain buddhist scriptures.
aroundthe last bend of xiling gorge stretches a vast plain. the riversuddenly becomes wide here. travelers on the yangtze cruise may alsovisit many sites of historical and scenic interest along the riverbanks including the ruined of baidi town and precious stone village.
everyoneknows that the yangtze gorges are changing since the well-known threegorges dam project is being built at sabdouping, yichang, hubeiprovince. the dam is 181 meters in height. its construction investmentcomes up to 203.9 billion rmb, equals to 24.65 billion u.s. dollars.the installed power generation capacity is expected to be 18.2 millionkilo watts. with the dam built, the flood in the yangtze river valleywill be controlled, navigation improved besides the economic benefits.tourism will be little affected. many cultural and historical relicsare now being removed to a higher ground before the rise of the waterlevel approaches.
now we are on the way to three gorges dam, I will offer you some basic information about this giant project in advance. Speaking of three gorges dam, it is goes without saying that the three gorges dam is virtually subtlety associated with the number 3,why?I will give you the explanation .Because many of information about three gorges dam contains the number 3.Firstly, three gorges dam is located at sandouping town,38km away from Gezhouba dam which is situated at downstream.Secondly, it is esteemed that 2039 billion has been invested in construction. Thirdly,the project had experienced 17 years which divided into 3 phases. from 1993 to 1997 is the first period and this period is regarded as preparation period;from 1998 to 2003 is the second period and the last period indicates the year from 2004 to 2009.After the project completed,the normal water lever has gone up to 175 meters and the strong capacity of reservoir amount to 393billion cubic meter. Due to the water level rises, 430 thousand arable land has been submerge and 1.75 million immigrations have to search for new land to inhabit.
As i have mentioned,in order to construct three gorges dam, considerable number of immigrant quit their home and arable land also is deserved.Apart from this, the dam will brings other negative effect, for social aspect, on one hand, millions of people will be displaced, the government will take great pains to solve the problem that settle down the immigrant and assit them to find a new job.On the other hand,some culture heritage will disappear and under the water forever since the water lever rises,for natural aspect,building dam will alter the envirment,also does harm to precious animal such as Chinese sturgeon.
Every coin has two sides, it must be paid price for the negative influences of three gorges dam, but the national congress insist maintain the decision of building three gorges dam because the advantage of building three gorges dam outweighs the disadvantage of building three gorges dam. three gorges dam, not only bring us significant economic effect but also is beneficial for environment and society because it will play vital role in many fields, for instance, flood control,electricity navigation,tourism,south to north water diversion,irragation,development-oriented resettlement.especially, three gorges dam demonstrates remarkable contribution in 3 fields:
First field is power generation:the annual average power of three gorges dam accounts up to 84.7 TWH. campared to the coal-fired power station with equivalent electricity generation,hyroelectric power is renewable and exhasible.besides that hydroelectric power is clean energy.three gorges power plant will decrease emission of 100 million tons of CO2,2 million tons of SO2.
Second field is navigation,the annual one-way navigation capacity of Yangtze at the dam will be upgraded from 10 million tons to 50 million tons.
third field is flood control,the effective flood control capacity reaches 22.xx billion cubic metres.the rare catastrophe of flood will be withstood by the dam thus xxmillion people and 1.5million hectare of farmland will be relieved from flood threaten.
OK!we are approaching the scenic spot.today we will view three spots in total,at first steep(tangziling platform) we will get the chance to have a glimpse of the panorama of three gorges dam.second stop-the platform of 185 meters height,it offers us golden opportunity to witness the shiplift and zigui immgrant town.the third stop.memorial gardern supply vidio and photoes about three gorges dam that you may interested in.
Now we are arriving at first stop-tangziling,please bring you valuables and get off the bus
preliminarly,please follow me to three gorges project model house.In front of us,there is the layout of three gorges dam#39;s model with the scale of 1:850.Look at main body of three gorges dam which has been painted white colour.The main body can be divided into 3 parts:spillway structures,powerhouse and building for navigation.The axial length of the dam is 2309.47meters and the height of the dam is 185meters,the spillway structures,consisting 22 overflow and 23deep overflow,is in the middle of the main body with the length of 483meters.The spillway world drain the sludge and coordinate the flood when needed.There are 32 turbine-generator units installed on the right and left hand of the spillway structure,each with installed capacity of 700mw.
the navigation building consis of double-line five stage shiplock and ship elevator.double-line five stage shiplock is 6442m in length and 300m in width,with two way and five stages.And it is diveded into 10 rooms,each room is 280 in length and 34m in width.the fall between upstream and downstream is 113m,suitable for 10 thousand tonnages ships and it will take almost 3 hour to pass through the lock.Therefore the ship elevator is designed for fast navigation for medium and small ship below 3000 tonnages.The elevator container is 120m in length and 18m in width and it only need 40 minutes for those ships to pass through the dam.the elevator near the platform 185 will be finished in 20xx.